Description of sea buckthorn of the variety Elizabeth, its planting and care
A few decades ago, sea buckthorn could be found in almost every suburban area, but interest in it faded over time. Today, the glory of sea buckthorn is reviving again, thanks to the emergence of new varieties, devoid of the shortcomings of the "old generation". One of these is the buckthorn variety Elizabeth. It is convenient to collect its large dessert fruits due to the absence of thorns, and the bush itself, with proper care, will become a real decoration of the site.
Botanical description of the plant
Sea buckthorn Elizabeth is a medium-sized shrub, the height of which, according to the description, rarely reaches 5 m, making the plant ideal for small garden plots. The multi-stemmed “construction” of sea buckthorn forms a spherical crown, but by trimming it can be given the appearance of a tree with a neat oval shape. At the tops of the shoots the leaves are dark green, elongated, and closer to the bottom they acquire an olive tone with a slight silver coating on the back.Elevated part: 1 - root neck; 2 - trunk; 3 - a branch of the first branching order; 4 - a branch of the second branching order; 5 - a third-order branch of a branch (fruit-bearing branch); 6 - a branch of the fourth order of branching (growth of the current year). The shoots practically have no prickly processes, therefore it is easy to collect fruits from them. The shrub begins to bear fruit from the 4th year, and the berries ripen by the end of August. With good care, you can achieve high productivity - up to 15 kg of fruit from one plant. At the same time, sea buckthorn berries are large, juicy, up to 1 cm long and weighing up to 1.1 g, have a pleasant dessert flavor and a bright orange color. When growing berry bushes, many rely on their beneficial properties.
Did you know? The first mention of sea buckthorn is contained in Tibetan medical texts dating from the 8th century.
So, sea buckthorn Elizabeth is the plant that can be fully considered medicinal. Its fruits and leaves contain a large complex of vitamins, and most of all ascorbic acid (vitamin C) - about 100 mg per 100 g of berries. Also in the chemical composition there are micro and macro elements (calcium, magnesium, potassium, etc.), phospholipids, restoring cell tissues, fatty acids that stimulate brain function, gastrointestinal tract, and many other useful substances.
Origin of the variety
The sea buckthorn variety Elizabeth owes its origin to the breeder-scientist Elizaveta Panteleeva. It is not difficult to guess that it was in her honor that the plant got its name. By the way, the source material was the variety Panteleevsky - also the brainchild of a scientist. Cultivation took place at the NIISS them. M.A. Lisavenko. Here in 1981 the seeds of Panteleevskaya sea buckthorn were sown.
Planting material was pre-treated with a chemical that causes the plant to mutate genetically. For 16 years, the culture was subject to observation, the identification of new improved features. As a result of painstaking work in 1997, a new variety of Elizabeth was listed in the State Register.
Landing is the starting process, the correctness of which will depend on how much the culture can take root on the site and develop normally in the future. In particular, it is important to choose a quality seedling, the optimal time for planting and prepare a favorable soil.
Video: spring planting sea buckthorn
Sea buckthorn can be planted in autumn and spring. Nevertheless, according to gardeners, it is better to do this in the springtime - in April. Autumn planting is dangerous because early frosts can adversely affect the root system, which has not yet taken root.In the case when planting in the fall is the only option, try not to delay and plant the crop until the end of September.
Site selection and preparation
Sea buckthorn tolerates transplants very poorly, so you need to immediately determine the place of its constant growth. It is better that this is a sunny and wind-free area - a thick shadow will cause the bush to hurt. Be wary of heavily waterlogged territories - fungal microorganisms are rapidly developing in swampy areas. Special attention should be paid to the soil. Sea buckthorn prefers fertile soil with a light structure.
Important! Sea buckthorn should not be planted where stone fruits grew before: pears, apple trees, etc., as this can lead to diseases.
Clay soils are preferably diluted with river sand and peat. Prepare the soil in advance: if you are going to plant a bush in the fall, it is better to prepare a place for a month, and if in the spring - for six months. Landing should be dug up, remove weed grass. During digging, it is recommended to fertilize the earth with humus (10 kg per 1 m²) and wood ash (200 g per 1 m²), which, incidentally, will reduce the level of acidity if it is elevated.
It is important to take into account that sea buckthorn is a dioecious plant with male and female representatives, therefore, if you want to have not only a beautiful tree on your plot, but also to collect useful fruits from it, you need to plant both sexes. When choosing seedlings, it is very difficult to distinguish between them, so it is preferable to buy material for planting in nurseries, where it is more likely to purchase a seedling of a particular gender.
Also, when selling, you can find out the presence of hybrids - today in nurseries they learned to grow monoecious cultures that can self-fertilize. PWhen buying, inspect the seedling well. If you find shrunken, damaged areas, scratches or wrinkles on wood - refuse to purchase. The tree should be completely healthy looking with a tight-fitting bark. A two-year-old seedling has a height of about 50 cm and a diameter of 5–7 cm. At this age, it should already have 6–8 skeletal roots, grown by 20–25 cm.It is preferable to choose young material, aged 1-2 years.
When you have already prepared a place and a seedling, you can proceed directly to the planting process, which consists in the following:
- Dig a hole about 60 cm deep and as wide as it is. If you intend to plant several shrubs at once, the distance between them should be at least 2 m.
- Prepare nutrient ground. Take garden soil, sand and peat in equal amounts of 10-15 kg and mix, add 50 g of phosphate fertilizers and 40 g of potash.
- At the bottom of the pit, lay a drainage layer 10 cm thick using gravel or chipped brick.
- Pour a third of the pit with nutrient mix, forming a small hill out of it.
- Set a sapling on top of the knoll, spread the roots. Immediately make sure that the root neck after instillation remains at ground level, no more than 5 cm deepening is allowed.
- Fill the landing, tamp lightly.
- Pour seedlings abundantly, consuming 2 buckets of water.
- Mulch the soil with peat or river sand with a layer of 5-6 cm.
So that the young shrub does not lean, it is advisable to drive a wooden peg next to it and tie up the plant.
Sea buckthorn care
Sea buckthorn is not a particularly demanding plant, but in order for the shrub to please with its aesthetic characteristics, bear fruit well and not get sick, the gardener should provide him with proper care. This is especially true for young, not yet strong plants.
Watering and feeding
Sea buckthorn is a drought-tolerant crop, but it is also periodically required for irrigation, especially during the period of fruit formation.Agrotechnics provides for 3 mandatory irrigation: during flowering, during the growth of the ovary (July) and during the filling of berries (early August). It should also be observed throughout the growing season that the earth does not dry out and, moreover, does not crack. For sea buckthorn, it is important not so much the amount of watering as their saturation.
Important! It is impossible for the root neck to be deep in the ground, as this will slow down the growth of the culture, and may even lead to its death.
Since the root system of the shrub goes deep into the ground (about 80 cm), it takes a lot of water to wet such a thickness of the soil. For each bush, during one watering, 3 buckets are spent for a young plant and 6–8 for an adult fruiting bush. In rainy periods, sea buckthorn is not watered. If you have well fertilized the soil during planting, you can not feed it the first three years.In the future, regular fertilizing is required. Especially if several shrubs grow on a site close to each other. In April, the soil is sprinkled with ammonium nitrate (20 g per 1 m²) and slightly loosened. In the summer, potassium-phosphorus top dressing is necessary, which is prepared as follows: 2 tbsp. Are diluted in 10 liters of water. l double superphosphate, 1 tbsp. potassium sulfate and 2 hours of the Uniflor-micro mixture. This volume is calculated for root dressing of one shrub.
Adult fruiting trees also need extra root top dressing. The first is carried out in the spring, when the leaves begin to bloom. To do this, you can use liquid fertilizer "Rocsa" or a solution of urea (1 tbsp. Per 10 liters of water). After fruiting, in order to enrich the soil and restore the vitality of the shrub, you need to feed 200 g of wood ash and 100 g of superphosphate. Fertilizers are applied simultaneously with digging during preparation of the culture for wintering.
Loosening and mulching
Loosening is an obligatory procedure, which is desirable to be carried out simultaneously with watering. After loosening, the trunk circle is mulched with a layer of about 10 cm.This should be done so that the mulch does not fit snugly against the trunk, since its moist environment can cause rotting of the trunk bark. Mulching helps to preserve soil moisture during warm periods for the longest possible period and protect roots from overcooling in the winter.Easy digging, to a depth of 10 cm, will help make the soil permeable to moisture and air, as well as get rid of weeds. The first shelter is best organized in late spring, when the soil is already warm enough under the sun. For sea buckthorn, the best mulching material will be peat, sand or rotted manure (by no means fresh). It is advisable not to use mowed grass and fallen leaves for these purposes, as harmful microorganisms can progress in them.
Pruning is carried out in the spring, before the buds begin to bloom (mid-late March). Up to 5 years of age, molding haircuts are carried out, removing abnormally growing shoots. After 8 years, it is recommended to conduct anti-aging scraps - cut off all old branches with small increments. Only shoots, not older than 3 years, should remain on the tree.
In addition to these basic procedures, every year during the season it is necessary to inspect sea buckthorn and, if damaged, dried or diseased branches are found, immediately remove them. Sanitary pruning begins in the spring, and late autumn ends when preparing the crop for wintering.
Preparing sea buckthorn for winter comes down to simple procedures: digging the soil with fertilizers and mulch, pruning, cleaning the area from biological debris, and preventive treatment of diseases and pests. Since adult sea-buckthorn calmly tolerates frosts down to -35 ° C, she does not need additional shelter - a mulching layer is enough. Young seedlings are best covered with non-woven material.
Possible diseases and pests
Like any plant, sea buckthorn can suffer from attacks by insect pests and fungal diseases. The cause of the disease is most often the non-observance of the rules of agricultural technology: waterlogged soil, planting in a darkened area, bush thickening, lack of fertilizing, which greatly weakens the plant's immunity.
Did you know? Sea buckthorn leaves were used in ancient Greece as a medicine for horses. After the animals ate them, they acquired a beautiful appearance, and the hair became shiny and smooth.
To avoid this, it is necessary to follow the rules of care and periodically carry out preventive spraying with chemicals, such as Bordeaux mixture, Fufanon, Fitoverm.
The most dangerous pests of sea buckthorn are:
- bean aphid - a small insect, not more than 3 mm, feeding on the juice of tissues of young leaves, causing their deformation and twisting. Shoots stop their growth and often dry out, brown plaque on leaves in an advanced stage is possible. They fight aphids by spraying shrubs with Actellic or Inta-Vir;
- sea buckthorn - the same small jumping insect. Larvae activate in early spring, first feed on the juice of swollen buds, and then move to young leaves. Treatment with Kemifos helps to get rid of them;
- sorrel bug - sucking pest up to 1.5 mm long, quickly damages buds, young shoots, leaves, ovaries and fruits. As a result of his life, the foliage loses its color, twists, and the ovaries are deformed. To overcome the invasion of insects, periodic processing by Kinmiks or Iskra helps.
In addition to pests, sea buckthorn can be threatened by fungal diseases. The most severe of these are stem rot, cortical necrosis, and brown spotting. In case of detecting signs of the disease (stratification of the bark, brown spots on the leaves), the affected areas must be urgently cut and burned, the cut points treated with 1% solution of copper sulphate and sprayed with Abiga-Pikom or HOMom shrub.
Growing sea buckthorn of the Elizabeth variety on the site will allow not only to decorate the landscape with an original dwarf shrub, but also to get the maximum benefit from its fruits. After all, it has long been known that sea buckthorn berries have a mass of healing properties and have been successfully used in folk medicine for centuries.