Description of elderberry black Laciniate, its planting and care
Elderberry black Laciniata (Sambucus nigra Laciniata) is a separate species of black elderberry, which is distinguished by the edibility of the fruit and the decorative appearance of the plant. The article will consider a detailed botanical description of the species, features of growing at home and methods of reproduction.
Botanical description of the plant
Elderberry Laciniata, which is also called dissected leafy, is represented by a fast-growing deciduous shrub that grows up to 4 m in height in a temperate climate. Some representatives of the species, growing in Western Europe, can reach 10 m in height. The bush has a wide openwork crown with open branches up to 3 m in diameter. The shoots of an adult plant are covered with light gray bark.
Did you know? In ancient Greece, black elderberry was considered a sacred plant, so it was planted near houses to protect against evil spirits.
The branches contain many large dark green leaves, up to 20 cm in diameter, the appearance of which resembles a fern frond. Leaves when rubbed have a specific aroma. The plant blooms at the beginning of summer, the buds are small, painted white or cream and collected in lush umbrella-shaped inflorescences. In place of the flowers, a fruit is formed - a purple-black berry with a glossy peel.
To determine the planting site of the plant on the site, you need to familiarize yourself with information about the characteristics of growth and exactingness to environmental conditions. Elderberry Laciniata is moderately demanding soil for cultivation at home. It can grow on soils with different particle size distribution and acidity. It prefers planting on loams, well-moistened, loose, neutral soils, which are rich in organic matter. It normally tolerates temporary flooding or salinization of soils.
Important! Elderberry grows very much and can occupy a large part of the garden, therefore it is recommended to dig slate into the soil around the perimeter of the pit, at a distance of 60 cm from the roots.
The plant will actively develop and bear fruit abundantly in bright light with direct sunlight throughout the day, but partial shade planting is also suitable. Planting seedlings can be made both in the spring and autumn. When planting in the spring, it is important to wait until the soil warms up well, but the seedlings will still be in hibernation so that the plant puts all its strength into rooting, and not to build up green mass. In autumn, elderberry should be planted 3 weeks before frosts, so that the roots have time to grow stronger and let out additional processes.
The procedure for planting elderberries at home consists of the following steps:
- The first step is to clean the selected area from weeds and plant roots, dig up and loosen the site for the enrichment of the soil with oxygen.
- Dig a landing hole measuring 45 cm deep and 50 cm wide.
- A mixture of fertile soil (2 buckets), peat (5 kg) and superphosphate (0.1 kg) is poured at the bottom of the pit.
- The seedling is placed in the center of the pit, laid out in different directions and sprinkled with the remaining soil.
- The near-stem circle is abundantly watered, 3 buckets of water are used for 1 seedling.
Any plant requires high-quality and regular care for normal growth and fruiting, therefore it is necessary to consider the features of watering, feeding, pruning and combating diseases and pests.
In the period of active vegetation of the bush, the near-stem circle requires additional hydration for future abundant fruiting.Laciniat bushes should be watered regularly during summer drought, at least 3 times a week, pouring 3 buckets of water into the trunk circle. If in summer there is enough rainfall, then elderberries can not be watered.
To save time and reduce the amount of watering, the soil around the bush is mulched, which allows moisture to evaporate less and maintain soil moisture for a long time. As mulch, you can use straw, sawdust or peat.
For better fruiting, elderberries are recommended to be fertilized 2 times a season. The first top dressing is introduced in early spring, using special solid mineral fertilizers for elderberry or urea. They are scattered in the near-stem circle, closing to a depth of 10-15 cm in the process of digging the soil. Organic fertilizers are applied in the fall a year later. As a top dressing for elderberries, manure or compost is used at the rate of 10 kg of nutrient mixture per 1 m².
Elderberry bush grows very quickly, therefore, annually requires sanitary and shaping pruning. The first pruning is carried out immediately after planting, leaving 10 cm of shoot length. It is necessary to trim so that the shoot has a strong kidney located on the outside of the shoot.
Autumn care consists in sanitary pruning; all basal shoots, dry, weak shoots and stems growing inside the bush are removed. Every year, in the spring, a quarter of the shoots of the plant are completely removed, so that the rest of the stems get more nutrients for abundant fruiting. Every third year of growth produce anti-aging pruning of the bush, removing shoots as much as possible, leaving 10 cm of length.
Possible diseases and pests
Elderberry Laciniata not only has a high resistance to diseases and pests, but also itself is able to repel harmful insects, thanks to the specific aroma of leaves, shoots and flowers. Only young immature plants, which require more attention than adult specimens, are susceptible to diseases.
Elderberry is sometimes affected by powdery mildew - a fungal disease that manifests itself in the form of a powdery-white coating on leaves, shoots and fruits. To combat the disease, colloidal sulfur or copper sulfate is used, according to the instructions.
The only pest that can settle on the shoots and leaves of elderberry is aphid. A small insect feeds on the juice of shoots and leaves, spreads very quickly and with mass damage can destroy the plant. To solve the problem, use the drug "Karbofos" according to the instructions.
Elderberry growing on a free territory has a highly branched root system, so it can reproduce independently, but if buying a young plant is not included in the plans, you can propagate it in three popular ways, the description of which will be discussed in more detail.
Plants propagated with the help of cuttings take root well. As a planting material, young shoots that did not have time to lignify are chosen. The harvesting of cuttings is carried out in June - July, cutting 10-12 cm of the top. It is necessary to ensure that each shoot has 2-3 internodes. All leaves, except for the top 2, are removed and buried in a peat-sand mixture (1: 1).
It is better to germinate the stems indoors to constantly control humidity and maintain a stable air temperature. For germination, a shallow container is selected, which, after planting, is covered with a polyethylene cap sprayed from the inside with water from a small spray bottle.It is important that the drops of water in the first 7 days of germination do not fall on the surface of the handle. The film should be sprayed every 3-4 days so that the humidity inside the greenhouse is at least 90%. In the autumn period, cuttings can be transplanted to a constant place of growth, a month before the alleged frosts.
Video: propagation by cuttings
An excellent option for elderberry propagation is the use of layering as a planting material, since the survival rate of this part of the plant reaches almost 100%. As cuttings for planting, young green or 2-3 year old lignified stems of a plant are suitable. To propagate elderberry by layering, the stems located in the outer part of the crown are bent to the ground, and the end of the shoot is fixed with a long metal hook.
Then they dig in part of the shoot, which touches the ground, with fertile soil. For better germination, the soil can be mixed with compost. The procedure is carried out at the end of May or in the first summer month, in order to get strong shoots suitable for transplanting to a constant place of growth by autumn. Green shoots will become suitable for transplanting only in the spring of next year, when they become lignified.
A good result can be obtained when elderberry is propagated by the generative method (by seeds), however, the process will be longer and more laborious than vegetative propagation. Elderberry seeds that have been scarified — artificial destruction of the seed coat — germinate better. The process of scarification consists of grinding the seeds with coarse sand.
Important! It is worth remembering that the generative method of reproduction is less effective, since the seeds often lose their species characteristics, and the result of germination can be unpredictable.
You can sow prepared seeds immediately in open ground to a depth of 2-3 cm in the fall, 3 weeks before frosts. The seed material hibernates well, and with the onset of spring it germinates and can reach a height of 50-60 cm by the fall. Care of seedlings is very simple and consists of regular watering once a week, provided that there is mulch between the plants.
Use in landscape design
The bush elderberry of Laciniata fits well into the landscape design of the adjoining territories thanks to the lush green crown, which during flowering is abundantly covered with flowers. Varietal features of some plants attract the attention of landscape designers, especially specimens with a diverse color of leaves. Such shrubs form eastern gardens, replacing them with the more capricious expensive Japanese maples.
Did you know? In Germany, ripe elderberry is used to produce a natural dye that is widely used in the food industry.
Elderberry is planted in a row or singly, depending on the composition. Group plantings are used as hedges. There are also dwarf forms of elderberry Laciniata, which are planted in compositions with hydrangeas, phlox, Japanese spirea and coleus. Low-growing representatives are suitable for planting near low conifers, deciduous ornamental shrubs, for example, barberry, privet, hawthorn, blooming buddley.Thus, elderberry Laciniata can be easily grown at home, if you follow the characteristics of planting and care, as well as follow the instructions for plant propagation, which are described in detail in the article. In order for the bush not only to please tasty and healthy fruits, but also to decorate the garden, it is necessary to follow the recommendations for placing the bush on the site and to carry out forming pruning in order to give the crown a beautiful shape.